Periodic Table

Main Groups -- 1, 2, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18
Transition Metals -- (green background)
Group 1 Alkali Metals
Group 2 Alkaline Earth Metals
Group 17 Halogens
Group 18 Noble (Inert) Gases
Elements 57 - 70 - "Rare Earth" Metals


*******  1  2   3   3    3  3  3  3  3  3   3  3  3   3  3  3  3   4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12   13  14  15  16 17 18
  Row 1    1
  H
Hydrogen
  2
  He
Helium
  Row 2    3
  Li
Lithium
  4
  Be
Beryllium
  5
  B
Boron
  6
  C
Carbon
  7
  N
Nitrogen
  8
  O
Oxygen
  9
  F
Fluorine
  10
  Ne
Neon
  Row 3    11
  Na
Sodium
  12
  Mg
Magnesium
  13
  Al
Aluminum
  14
  Si
Silicon
  15
  P
Phosphorus
  16
  S
Sulfur
  17
  Cl
Chlorine
  18
  Ar
Argon
  Row 4    19
  K
Potassium
  20
  Ca
Calcium
  21
  Sc
Scandium
  22
  Ti
Titanium
  23
  V
Vanadium
  24
  Cr
Chromium
  25
  Mn
Manganese
  26
  Fe
Iron
  27
  Co
Cobalt
  28
  Ni
Nickel
  29
  Cu
Copper
  30
  Zn
Zinc
  31
  Ga
Gallium
  32
  Ge
Germanium
  33
  As
Arsenic
  34
  Se
Selenium
  35
  Br
Bromine
  36
  Kr
Krypton
  Row 5    37
  Rb
Rubidium
  38
  Sr
Strontium
  39
  Y
Yttrium
  40
  Zr
Zirconium
  41
  Nb
Niobium
  42
  Mo
Molybdenum
  43
  Tc
Technetium
  44
  Ru
Ruthenium
  45
  Rh
Rhodium
  46
  Pd
Palladium
  47
  Ag
Silver
  48
  Cd
Cadmium
  49
  In
Indium
  50
  Sn
Tin
  51
  Sb
Antimony
  52
  Te
Tellurium
  53
  I
Iodine
  54
  Xe
Xenon
  Row 6    55
  Cs
Cesium
  56
  Ba
Barium
  57
  La
Lanthanum
  58
  Ce
Cerium
  59
  Pr
Praseodymium
  60
  Nd
Neodymium
  61
  Pm
Promethium
  62
  Sm
Samarium
  63
  Eu
Europium
  64
  Gd
Gadolinium
  65
  Tb
Terbium
  66
  Dy
Dysprosium
  67
  Ho
Holmium
  68
  Er
Erbium
  69
  Tm
Thulium
  70
  Yb
Ytterbium
  71
  Lu
Lutetium
  72
  Hf
Hafnium
  73
  Ta
Tantalum
  74
  W
Tungsten
  75
  Re
Rhenium
  76
  Os
Osmium
  77
  Ir
Iridium
  78
  Pt
Platinum
  79
  Au
Gold
  80
  Hg
Mercury
  81
  Tl
Thallium
  82
  Pb
Lead
  83
  Bi
Bismuth
  84
  Po
Polonium
  85
  At
Astatine
  86
  Rn
Radon
  Row 7    87
  Fr
Francium
  88
  Ra
Radium
  89
  Ac
Actinium
  90
  Th
Thorium
  91
  Pa
Protactinium
  92
  U
Uranium
  93
  Np
Neptunium
  94
  Pu
Plutonium
  95
  Am
Americium
  96
  Cm
Curium
  97
  Bk
Berkelium
  98
  Cf
Californium
  99
  Es
Einsteinium
  100
  Fm
Fermium
  101
  Md
Mendelevium
  102
  No
Nobelium
  103
  Lr
Lawrencium
  104
  Rf
Rutherfordium
  105
  Db
Dubnium
  106
  Sg
Seaborgium
  107
  Bh
Bohrium
  108
  Hs
Hassium
  109
  Mt
Meitnerium
  110
  Ds
Darmstadtium
  111
  Rg
Roentgenium
  112
  Cn
Copernicium
  113
  Nh
Nihonium
  114
  Fl
Flerovium
  115
  Mc
Moscovium
  116
  Lv
Livermorium
  117
  Ts
Tennesine
  118
  Og
Oganesson

Yes, that is the periodic table displayed above, but it is presented a little bit differently than you have usually seen it:
• Elements 57 through 70 (and 89 through 102) are usually shown separately, and at the bottom of the chart. Here, they are placed right alongside the other elements in numerical order.
• All the elements are shown with 4 background colors: blue, yellow, green or red.
By being displayed in this way, it is easy to see how the orbitals of each element get "filled in" with electrons.

Let's look at the first 3 rows of the periodic table.


Row 2 consists of the 2s (blue) and 2p (red) orbitals.
Row 3 consists of the 3s (blue) and 3p (red) orbitals.
This pattern continues for all the rows thereafter.


When we move down to Rows 4 and 5, the 3d and 4d orbitals (green) also get filled with electrons.



Moving down to Rows 6 and 7, the 4f and 5f orbitals (yellow) get filled with electrons.






Now let's show the periodic table with the names of the orbitals ("s" "p" "d" and "f") replacing the element numbers and symbols:






You probably remember that the "s" orbital contains 2 electrons, the "p" orbital 6, the "d" orbital 10 and the "f" orbital 14.
Now, let's see how all of this comes together.

Row 1 contains 2 electrons in the 1s orbital, row 2 contains another "s" orbital (2 electrons) and a "p" orbital (6 electrons).
Adding up those electrons (2 + 2 + 6) equals 10.
Scrolling up, let's look at the element at the end of row 2. What is its number?
Yes, neon is element number 10! (This is the sum of the electrons in two "s" orbitals and one "p" orbital.)

Rows 1 and 2 have 10 electrons.
Row 3 has another "s" orbital (2 electrons) and another "p" orbital (6 electrons).
10 + 2 + 6 equals 18.
Scrolling up, and looking at the element at the end of row 3, we see that it is argon, element number 18.

Looking at row 4, we encounter a new type of orbital - the "d" orbital.
The first 3 rows have 18 electrons and the fourth row gives us an additional 18
("s" orbital 2, "p" orbital 6 and "d" orbital 10) which brings the total to 36.
Scrolling up and looking at the end of row 4 we see that it is krypton, element 36.

The fifth row adds an additional 18 electrons ("s" orbital 2, "p" orbital 6, "d" oribtal 10).
18 plus 36 = 54, which is the atomic number of xenon, the element at the end of row 5.

Row 6 introduces a new type of orbital - the "f" orbital.
Adding 54 electrons to 32 (electrons in the "s", "p", "d" and "f" orbitals) sums to 86.
Element 86 is radon and is at the end of row 6.

So, we can see that as the "s" and "p" obitals are filled, this produces the "Main Group" of elements (blue and red groups).
As the "d" orbitals are filled, this produces the "Transition Elements" (green group) and
as the "f" orbitals are filled, this produces the "rare earth" elements (yellow group).

Now, you can see how (and why) the periodic table has certain elements arranged in "blocks" and "groups" and you can see the reason for the "steps".
Perhaps this has increased your understanding of the periodic table, orbitals and the elctron configuration of the elements..



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